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January 11, 2018

Oesophageal Cancer

Oesophagus is the pipe which takes food from the mouth to the stomach. It usually affects people above the age of fifty-five years. Since the outcome […]
January 11, 2018

PILONIDAL ABSCESS

Pilonidal is a condition in which hair grows/collected under the skin in nata cleft (Space between two buttocks). Pilonidal sinus is a abnormal track from deeper […]
January 11, 2018

Acidity analysis

Acidity Overview Hernia is a condition where a part of the body pushes through the muscular layer holding that part in its place. It is a […]
October 25, 2017

What Is Laparoscopic (Key Hole) Surgery? Is It Safe?

Laparoscopy means looking inside someone’s abdomen through a small incision using a special camera (laparoscope). One would be put to sleep (general anesthesia) for this. What […]
October 25, 2017

Weight Loss Surgery:

Weight Loss Surgery: Your Questions Answered There are clear indications and benefits of surgery when the appropriate procedure is performed. Weight loss surgery helps one lose […]
October 25, 2017

Myths and Facts about Acidity Explained

  Myths and Facts about Acidity Explained I see a lot of patients who come to me complaining of self-diagnosed acidity. This mean almost everybody has […]
October 25, 2017

Is There Surgery for Acid Reflux?

  Is There Surgery for Acid Reflux? Yes. While many people suffer from acid reflux, not all of them have true acid reflux. It is true […]
October 25, 2017

Is there a solution for difficulty in emptying the bowel fully?

  Is there a solution for difficulty in emptying the bowel fully? Some people get a sensation of incomplete emptying after visiting the toilet. They put […]
October 25, 2017

Is It Really Acidity? Or Is it IBS?

I see many patients who come with self-diagnosis of acidity and self-medication. Most of them feel surprised when I tell them they are actually not suffering […]
October 25, 2017

Is bowel motion after food normal? Why am I constipated?

  Quite a lot of people complain of having to go to the toilet immediately after consuming food. They induce in self-medication, mostly in the form […]
October 25, 2017

Home Remedies for Itching Around Back Passage (Pruritis Ani)

  What is pruritis ani? It’s a condition characterised by excessive itching around the anal canal. Even though it is not serious, it is socially embarrassing at the […]
October 25, 2017

Gallstones: Does Everybody Need Surgery?

  What are the causes of gallstones?  It is difficult to tell what causes gallstones as there are so many associated risks. It is more in […]
October 25, 2017

Do You Feel Pain When Passing Stool? (Anal Fissure)

  What is anal fissure? Anal fissure is the most common cause of painful defecation (opening bowels). Most times, it is also associated with bleeding. It […]
October 25, 2017

Do I Need to Worry About Blood in the Stool? (Rectal Bleeding)

When anyone notices blood in the toilet, it brings panic and fear in most people’s minds. It is rightly so. But we need to understand that […]
October 25, 2017

Does Everyone Have Piles?

  While most patients come with self-diagnosis of suffering from piles/hemorrhoids, I reassure them that it’s a normal part of every human being and we are […]
October 25, 2017

Do I Have Appendicitis? Do I Need Surgery?

The first thing we need to understand is that appendicitis is a surgical emergency. When treated appropriately, complications are very few. What are the symptoms of […]
October 25, 2017

Do I Have Hernia? If So, What Should I Do?

What is hernia? It is a weakened spot through which contents of the abdomen come out to lay just below the skin. Usually, there are layers of […]
October 25, 2017

Chronic Pancreatitis

Understanding the pancreas The pancreas is in the upper tummy (abdomen) and lies behind the stomach and guts (intestines). It makes a fluid that contains chemicals […]
October 25, 2017

Wilson’s Disease

Understanding Wilson’s disease Wilson’s disease is a condition where too much copper builds up in the body. It is a rare inherited disorder that affects about […]
October 25, 2017

Vomiting Blood (Haematemesis)

Comprehending haematemesis Haematemesis is the medical word for vomiting blood. This symptom is usually due to a problem within the upper gut. That is, the gullet […]
October 25, 2017

​Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a gastroenterological emergency with a mortality of 6%-13%. Despite changes in management, mortality has not significantly improved over a period […]
October 25, 2017

Probiotics and Prebiotics

Introduction Probiotics are defined as “live micro-organisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts.” The major source of probiotics for […]
October 25, 2017

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

This is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with obliterative inflammatory fibrosis of the bile ducts. The term ‘primary’ is used to distinguish this condition from bile […]
October 25, 2017

​Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Bile is a yellow-green liquid that contains various chemicals and bile salts. Bile helps one to digest food, particularly fatty foods. It also helps the body […]
October 25, 2017

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Causes and origin PBC is an autoimmune disease process and is often considered a model autoimmune disease because of its signature serology, the antimitochondrial antibody, and […]
October 25, 2017

Portal Hypertension

Portal hypertension refers to abnormally high pressure in the hepatic portal vein. Clinically significant portal hypertension is defined as an hepatic venous pressure gradient of 10 […]
October 25, 2017

Peptic Ulcer Disease

The term peptic ulcer refers to both gastric and duodenal ulcers. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection is with about 95% of duodenal ulcers and 80% of […]
October 25, 2017

Pelvic Floor Exercises

If stress incontinence is developed in an individual, there is a good chance that it can be cured with pelvic floor exercises. Pelvic floor exercises are […]
October 25, 2017

PEG Feeding Tubes – Indications and Management

PEG feeding tubes are now increasingly used for enteral nutrition for both children and adults. PEG may be used with a jejunal extension. PEG feeding is […]
October 25, 2017

Oesophageal Strictures, Webs and Rings

History Presenting features include heartburn, dysphagia, impaction of food, weight loss, and chest pain. Less common presentations are persistent cough and wheeze due to aspiration of […]
October 25, 2017

Oesophageal Atresia

Prevalence The estimated incidence is 1 in 3,000 births. The recurrence risk in subsequent pregnancies of oesophageal atresia/TOF that is not part of a syndrome of […]
October 25, 2017

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Functions of the liver The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: 1.It makes proteins that are essential […]
October 25, 2017

Mallory-Weiss Syndrome

Understanding Mallory-Weiss syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is condition charectarised by a tear in the lining of the upper part of the gut (gastrointestinal tract) causing bleeding. The […]
October 25, 2017

Jaundice

Getting familiar with jaundice When one is jaundiced it means that one’s skin and other body parts turn a yellow colour. It is due to a […]
October 25, 2017

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Diet Sheet

Desired changes in conducting life and food-intake for handling IBS Diet and lifestyle management can be used as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). When […]
October 25, 2017

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) & proneness In IBS, the function of the gut is upset, but all parts of the gut look normal, even when looked […]
October 25, 2017

Iron-deficiency Anaemia

Composition of blood Blood is made up of a fluid called plasma which contains: Platelets – which help the blood to clot if we cut ourselves. […]
October 25, 2017

Hiatus Hernia

Comprehending the upper gut The tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the back passage (anus) is called the gut or gastrointestinal tract.. The […]
October 25, 2017

Hepatitis C

  The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: Role of the liver in the body 1.It makes […]
October 25, 2017

Hepatitis B Immunisation

Understanding hepatitis B Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. The infection mainly affects the liver. However, if one is infected, the […]
October 25, 2017

​Hepatitis B

The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: 1.It makes proteins that are essential for blood to clot(clotting […]
October 25, 2017

Hepatitis A Immunisation

Understanding hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus. Causes the illness called Hepatitis A. This virus mainly causes inflammation of the liver and its indications are : Sometimes, […]
October 25, 2017

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: 1.It makes proteins that are essential for blood […]
October 25, 2017

Helicobacter Pylori & Stomach Pain

Comprehending Helicobacter pylori infection and knowing its proneness Helicobacter pylori (commonly just called H. pylori) is a germ (bacterium). It can infect the lining of the […]
October 25, 2017

Gastroscopy (Endoscopy)

Gastroscopy is a test to look inside the gullet (oesophagus), the stomach and the first part of the gut (small intestine) known as the duodenum. Understanding […]
October 25, 2017

ERCP

Understanding ERCP ERCP stands for ‘endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography’. ERCP is a very useful procedure, as it can be used both to diagnose and to treat various […]
October 25, 2017

Difficulty Swallowing (Dysphagia)

Knowing the oesophagus The gullet (oesophagus) is part of the gut (gastrointestinal tract). When we eat, food goes down the oesophagus into the stomach. The upper […]
October 25, 2017

Dyspepsia (Indigestion)

Comprehending digestion Food passes down the gullet (oesophagus) into the stomach. The stomach makes acid which is not essential but helps to digest food. Food then […]
October 25, 2017

Duodenal Ulcer

Getting aware about gut and digestion The gullet (oesophagus) helps in passing the food down into the stomach. The stomach makes acid which is not essential, […]
October 25, 2017

Drug-induced Hepatitis

Drug-induced hepatitis involves inflammation of the liver, caused by medication. Drug-induced hepatitis is similar to acute viral hepatitis but parenchymal destruction tends to be more extensive. […]
October 25, 2017

Diverticula (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease & Diverticulitis)

What do diverticula imply? A diverticulum is a small pouch with a narrow neck that sticks out from (protrudes from) the wall of the gut (intestine). […]
October 25, 2017

Crohn’s Disease

(Regional ileitis, terminal ileitis, regional enteritis or granulomatous enteritis) Incidence The onset of Crohn’s disease has two age peaks: the first and largest peak occurs between […]
October 25, 2017

Crohn’s Disease

Understanding Crohn’s disease Crohn’s disease is a condition that causes inflammation of the wall of the gut. Any part of the gut can be affected. This […]
October 25, 2017

Constipation in Adults

Constipation at a glance Constipation causes one or more of the following: Sometimes, crampy pains occur in the lower part of the tummy (abdomen) One may […]
October 25, 2017

Congenital Gastrointestinal Malformations

The embryonic development of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is complex and it is perhaps unsurprising that abnormalities of development occur. They may be complex and multiple […]
October 25, 2017

Colonoscopy

Comprehending colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a test where an operator – a doctor – looks into one’s colon. The colon is sometimes called the large intestine […]
October 25, 2017

​Coeliac Disease Diet Sheet

Coeliac disease A condition that causes inflammation in the lining of part of the gut (called the small intestine) is termed as celiac disease. The lining […]
October 25, 2017

Coeliac Disease

Comprehending coeliac disease Coeliac disease is a condition that causes inflammation in the lining of part of the gut (the small intestine) is termed as celiac […]
October 25, 2017

Coeliac Disease

(gluten-sensitive enteropathy, celiac disease, celiac sprue) This is an immune-mediated, inflammatory systemic disorder provoked by gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible individuals, which can lead […]
October 25, 2017

Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease where inflammation develops in the colon and the rectum (the large intestine). The most common symptom when the disease flares […]
October 25, 2017

Orlistat – Help With Weight Loss

Getting aware about Orlistat Orlistat is a medicine which can help one to lose weight if one is obese or overweight. It works by blocking chemicals […]
October 25, 2017

Oesophageal Varices

Prevalence Alcholic & Viral infections are leading causes of liver disease, which in turn lead to varicies. The risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices in the […]
October 25, 2017

​Flatulence (excessive gas)

The definition of flatulence or intestinal gas is the state of having excessive stomach and/or intestinal gas (waste gas produced during digestion) that is usually released […]
October 25, 2017

Anal Fissure

Understanding an anal fissure An anal fissure is a small tear of the skin around the back passage (anus). Although the tear of an anal fissure […]
October 25, 2017

Abscess

An abscess can develop in various parts of the body. An operation may be needed to drain the pus. One may also need to take medicines […]
October 25, 2017

Abdominal Pain

Pain in the tummy (abdomen) is common. Usually it doesn’t last long and is often due to a gut infection or a small upset – but […]
October 25, 2017

​Weight Reduction – How to Lose Weight

How weight loss works The science In some respects, it is quite simple. Your weight depends on how much energy you take in (the calories in […]
October 25, 2017

Weight Loss Surgery

Weight loss surgery can work well to help some people to lose weight. However, it may not be suitable or the right decision for everyone who […]
October 25, 2017

​Volvulus & Midgut Malrotations

A volvulus is a complete twisting of a loop of intestine around its mesenteric attachment site. This can occur at various locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) […]
October 25, 2017

Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a surgical procedure that allows doctors to see inside the chest and lungs. It is a form of ‘keyhole’ surgery which […]
October 24, 2017

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

Stomach (gastric) cancer is common worldwide. Most cases occur in people over the age of 55. If stomach cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, there […]
October 24, 2017

Staging and Grading Cancer

The stage of a cancer is a measure of how much the cancer has grown and spread. Some cancers are also graded by looking at features […]
October 24, 2017

Screening for Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancers are common, and early detection improves prognosis. Early Diagnosis helps Early detection is important because: Colorectal cancer is common and has significant mortality. Bowel […]
October 24, 2017

Rectal Prolapse

Rectal prolapse is the protrusion of either the rectal mucosa or the entire wall of the rectum. Partial prolapse involves only the mucosa and usually only […]
October 24, 2017

Rectal Bleeding(Blood in Faeces)

There are many causes of rectal bleeding. The severity can vary from mild bleeding (common) to a severe life-threatening bleeding (uncommon). If the bleeding is heavy […]
October 24, 2017

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is a treatment for cancer, which uses beams of radiation to kill cancer cells. It may be done alone or in combination with other treatments […]
October 24, 2017

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy is a key component of both radical (curative) and palliative treatment for cancer. Radiotherapy forms part of the management of 40% of patients cured of […]
October 24, 2017

Pyloric Stenosis

​ Pyloric stenosis affects around 2-4 in 1,000 newborn babies. It causes a blockage of food at the stomach outlet (pylorus). Persistently being sick (vomiting) is […]
October 24, 2017

Puerperal Mastitis

Mastitis means inflammation of the breast, and may be non-infectious or infectious in origin. In lactating women, it is essentially caused by an accumulation of milk. […]
October 24, 2017

Primary Liver Cancer

In primary liver cancer, the cancer originates in the liver. (In secondary liver cancer, a cancer spreads to the liver from another part of the body.) […]
October 24, 2017

Precautions with Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Surgery

​At a glance There is a rising incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. About 50% of people with diabetes mellitus are unaware of their condition. Patients […]
October 24, 2017

​Pilonidal Sinus

A pilonidal sinus is an infected tract under the skin between the buttocks. Treatment commonly involves an operation. After the operation you should keep the area […]
October 24, 2017

Piles (Haemorrhoids)

Piles (haemorrhoids) are swellings that develop inside and around the back passage (anus). Symptoms range from temporary and mild, to persistent and painful. In many cases, […]
October 24, 2017

Pelvic Abscesses

A pelvic abscess most commonly follows acute appendicitis, or gynaecological infections or procedures. It can also occur as a complication of Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis or following […]
October 24, 2017

Pancreatic Exocrine Tumours

Pancreatic cancer is a much feared disease due to its notoriously late presentation, early metastases and poor survival rates. Less than a fifth of patients present […]
October 24, 2017

Pancreatic Endocrine Tumours

Pancreatic endocrine tumours (PETs) are classified as neuroendocrine tumours. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) stem cells, which are pluripotent […]
October 24, 2017

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer (cancer of the pancreas) mainly occurs in people aged over 60. If it is diagnosed at an early stage then an operation to remove […]
October 24, 2017

Paleolithic Diet

Following a Paleolithic diet means eating unprocessed, fresh foods that reflect the diet of our hunter-gather ancestors from the Palaeolithic era. It involves avoiding any foods […]
October 24, 2017

ORLISTAT

General points Anti-obesity medication should only be considered after diet, behavioural changes and exercise have been tried and evaluated. If the patient’s weight has reached a […]
October 24, 2017

​Oesophageal Cancer

Epidemiology Carcinoma of the oesophagus is a common, aggressive tumour. Several histological types are seen, almost all of which are epithelial in origin. The vast majority […]
October 24, 2017

Oesophageal Cancer

Oesophageal cancer is cancer of the gullet (oesophagus). Most cases occur in people over the age of 55, although younger people are sometimes affected. Those diagnosed […]
October 24, 2017

Obesity in Adults

Obesity is a growing problem in most countries and is responsible for a significant degree of morbidity and mortality in the world. There are several facets […]
October 24, 2017

​Obesity & Overweight in Adults

If you are obese or overweight, you have an increased risk of developing various health problems. Even a modest amount of weight loss can help to […]
October 24, 2017

Necrotising Fasciitis

Synonyms: necrotising soft tissue infection, Fournier’s gangrene (necrotising fasciitis of scrotum or vulva), Ludwig’s angina (necrotising fasciitis of submandibular space) Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon […]
October 24, 2017

​Nail Disorders and Abnormalities

Some common nail disorders Ingrowing toenail A common problem resulting from various causes – eg, improperly trimmed nails, hyperhidrosis and poorly fitting shoes. It often presents […]
October 24, 2017

Mesenteric Adenitis

A mild condition which causes temporary pain in the tummy (abdomen), usually in children is defined as Mesenteric adenitis. It usually clears up without treatment. Sometimes […]
October 24, 2017

Meckel’s Diverticulum

This is the vestigial remnant of the vitellointestinal duct. It is the most frequent malformation of the gastrointestinal tract. If present, it is located in the […]
October 24, 2017

​Lipoma

A lipoma is a non-cancerous (benign) fatty lump that usually causes no symptoms or problems. Most lipomas are small and are best left alone. However, a […]
October 24, 2017

​Laparoscopy & Laparoscopic Surgery

​Laparoscopy & Laparoscopic Surgery Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure, which uses a special surgical instrument called a laparoscope to look inside the body or to perform […]
October 24, 2017

Itchy Bottom (Pruritus Ani)

An itchy bottom (pruritus ani) is a persistent itch around the anus. There are many different causes but the cause is not clear in many cases. […]
October 24, 2017

Ingrowing (Ingrown) Toenails

An ingrowing toenail is a common condition which may cause discomfort or become infected. Various treatments can be given by a doctor or a chiropodist. If […]
October 24, 2017

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. The cause is unknown. Inflammation of the apocrine sweat gland-bearing areas leads to painful and recurrent boils and […]
October 24, 2017

​Hernia

A hernia is a lump, which occurs from a weakness in the wall of the tummy (abdomen). Most hernias need treating by performing an operation. There […]
October 24, 2017

Gallstones

Gallstones are common but cause no symptoms in some people who have them. They cause problems such as pain, jaundice, pancreatitis, and gallbladder inflammation. Surgery is […]
October 24, 2017

Epidermoid and Pilar Cysts (Sebaceous Cysts)

(Synonyms: sebaceous cysts Or trichilemmal cysts) The vast majority of epidermoid or pilar cysts are of no great consequence but some in certain places are a cause […]
October 24, 2017

Diverticular Disease

Diverticula can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract, but are seen most commonly in the sigmoid and descending colon. A diverticulum consists of a herniation of mucosa […]
October 24, 2017

​Diverticula (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease and Diverticulitis)

Diverticula of the colon are common in older people. They commonly cause no symptoms, and in most cases no treatment is needed. However, a high-fibre diet […]
October 24, 2017

Dukan Diet

What is the Dukan Diet? The Dukan Diet is a weight loss plan devised by French Doctor, Pierre Dukan. The diet consists of four phases designed […]
October 24, 2017

Atkins Diet

The Atkins Diet was created by an American doctor. It is one of the most popular weight loss plans to advise cutting back on carbohydrates. Understanding […]
October 24, 2017

​Diabetes, Foot Care and Foot Ulcers

Some people with diabetes develop foot ulcers. A foot ulcer is prone to infection, which may become severe. Knowing about foot ulcer A skin ulcer is […]
October 24, 2017

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is produced by the failure of the diaphragm to fuse properly during fetal development, allowing the abdominal organs to migrate up into the […]
October 24, 2017

Common Postoperative Complications

Immediate: Primary haemorrhage Basal atelectasis Shock Low urine output Early: Acute confusion Nausea and vomiting Fever Secondary haemorrhage Pneumonia Wound or anastomosis dehiscence. DVT Acute urinary […]
October 24, 2017

Colorectal Cancer

About two thirds of all colorectal tumours develop in the colon and the remainder in the rectum. Most tumours are adenocarcinomas which evolve from polyps, which […]
October 24, 2017

Cholangiocarcinoma(Klatskin’s tumour)

Cholangiocarcinoma is a carcinoma arising in any part of the biliary tree from the small intrahepatic bile ducts to the ampulla of Vater at the distal […]
October 24, 2017

Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Medicines

This article gives a general overview about chemotherapy. It does not give details about individual chemotherapy medicines or advise about individual cancers. You should discuss your […]
October 24, 2017

Cervical Ribs and Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Prevalence Because of a lack of a gold standard for diagnosis it is difficult to obtain meaningful epidemiological figures. Irrespective of the overall incidence, it is […]
October 24, 2017

Carcinoid Tumours

  Carcinoid tumours are neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of predominantly enterochromaffin cell origin (Kulchitsky cells). Two thirds of carcinoid tumours occur somewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. The […]
October 24, 2017

Cancer – A General Overview

  This article gives a short account about what cancer is, what tumours are, and how cancers develop and spread. There are individual types of cancer […]
October 24, 2017

Burns and Scalds

  Following a burn or scald, one should make sure that self and the affected person are safe from further burns or danger – then burnt […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Pain

  Most women develop breast pain at some stage in life. In most cases the pain develops in the days just before a period. In some […]
October 24, 2017

Breast cancer

  The detection of a lump in the breast causes understandable fear of a cancer diagnosis. Careful examination will increase the chance of correct diagnosis. It […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Lumps

  Finding a lump in your breast can cause a lot of anxiety. Most breast lumps, particularly in younger women, are not caused by cancer. They […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Cancer Screening

  Breast Cancer is the most common cancer, with women having a 1 in 8 lifetime risk of developing the disease. Many trials have looked at […]
October 24, 2017

Male Breast Cancer

  Male breast cancer remains under diagnosed and, due to delays in diagnosis, is often also undertreated. The investigation and management of male breast cancer are […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Cancer (Hereditary Factors)

  Most cases of breast cancer occur by chance. However, breast cancer does occur more often than usual in some families because of their genetic make-up. […]
October 24, 2017

Familial Breast Cancer

  Health guidance No need of more invetigations if the family history shows only one first-degree or second-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an age […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Cancer

  Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Most cases occur in women over the age of 50. If you notice any lump […]
October 24, 2017

Breast Cancer

  Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women and the second most common cause of death from cancer. It is also a […]
October 24, 2017

Bowel (Colonic) Polyps (Familial)

  Understanding the gut The gut starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. When we eat or drink, the food and liquid travel down […]
October 24, 2017

Bowel (Colonic) Polyps

  Understanding the gut The gut starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. When we eat or drink, the food and liquid travel down […]
October 24, 2017

Bowel Ischemia

  Bowel Ischemia refers to decreased blood supply to bowel. There are various causes for different types of bowel ischemia. This is case of medical emergency, […]
October 24, 2017

​Bowel (Colorectal) Cancer

  Bowel cancer (also called cancer of the bowel and colorectal cancer) is common. Most cases occur in people aged over 50. If bowel cancer is […]
October 24, 2017

Appendicitis

  What is the appendix and its location The appendix is a small dead-end pouch, like a little tube, that comes off the caecum. The caecum […]
October 24, 2017

ANAL FISTULA

  ANAL CANAL What is an anal fistula? An anal fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel between your anal canal (back passage) and the skin […]
October 24, 2017

Anal Carcinoma

  Eighty percent of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Other tumour types include melanoma, lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. The behaviour of the tumour depends on […]
October 24, 2017

5:2 Diet

  The 5:2 diet means eating ‘normally’ for five days out of seven and then ‘fasting’ on the other two days out of seven. During the […]
October 24, 2017

CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy(abdomen). It has many functions which include: 1.Storing fuel for the body (glycogen) […]
October 24, 2017

CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy(abdomen). It has many functions which include: 1.Storing fuel for the body (glycogen) which is made […]
October 24, 2017

Chronic Pancreatitis

Understanding the pancreas The pancreas is in the upper tummy (abdomen) and lies behind the stomach and guts (intestines). It makes a fluid that contains chemicals […]
October 23, 2017

Chronic Hepatitis

Aetiology Viral hepatitis: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus. Metabolic: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), haemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Toxic and drugs: alcoholic liver […]
October 23, 2017

choledochal cyst

A congenital dilatation of part or whole of the bile duct is termed as choledochal cyst. The cystic dilatations of the biliary tract can involve the […]
October 23, 2017

Cholangitis

Acute obstructive cholangitis is a syndrome consisting of lethargy or mental confusion and shock, as well as fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain caused by biliary obstruction. […]
October 23, 2017

Barrett’s Oesophagus

Correlation of the stomach and oesophagus Food is passed down the gullet (oesophagus) into the stomach on being eaten. Cells in the lining of the stomach […]
October 23, 2017

Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Understanding foul breath An unpleasant smell on one’s breath is termed as bad or foul breath (halitosis) This is something that other people notice when one […]
October 23, 2017

Autoimmune Hepatitis

Functions of the liver The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: It makes proteins that are essential […]
October 23, 2017

Alcohol and Liver Disease

  Functions of the liver The liver is in the upper right part of the tummy (abdomen). It performs various functions: It makes proteins that are […]
October 23, 2017

Acute Pancreatitis

Knowing the pancreas The pancreas is in the upper tummy (abdomen) and lies behind the stomach and guts (intestines). It makes a fluid that contains chemicals […]
October 23, 2017

Acid Reflux and Oesophagitis

What are the oesophagus and stomach Food passes down the gullet (oesophagus) into the stomach on being eaten. Acid and other chemicals are made by cells […]
October 23, 2017

Achalasia

The oesophagus and the sphincter The gullet (oesophagus) contains muscles. These muscles contract in a rhythmic way to allow food to pass down the oesophagus. This […]
October 17, 2017

Changing Face of Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer in India

  Colorectal cancer is cancer affecting the large intestine and rectum. There has been a rapid increase in colorectal cancer in India, and this can be […]
October 17, 2017

Anal Fistula and Treatment Options: Your Questions Answered

What is an anal fistula? It is an abnormal connection between your anal canal (back passage) to the surrounding skin. It can occur due to various reasons explained below. […]